Concrete art refers to abstract, non-figurative, geometric art. Concrete art is non-referential, free from symbolic components, and is created from geometrical shapes whose directness captivates the viewer. Artist Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) coined the term in 1930 when the Art Concret group was created, with a manifesto entitled “The Basis of concrete art”. The term was popularised by artists Josef Albers and Max Bill, who organised the first international exhibition of concrete art at the Basel Kunsthalle in 1944. In Sweden, artists such as Otto G Carlsund, John Ivar Berg, Bertil Öhlund, Albert Johansson, Harry Booström and Dane Richard Mortensen were all active in the field of concrete art.